do not usually write about my own scientific work, but I'm going to make an
exception for this column and tell you about a physics puzzle and how we solved
it. Back in 1991, almost a decade
before the facility actually went into operation. I wrote a column ("RHIC:
Big Bangs in the Lab", Analog,
June-1991 issue) about the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a large
accelerator project that was then in the early stages of construction.
The column was written a few months after I joined what is now called the
STAR Collaboration, a group of physicists (now numbering 577) who ultimately
built a large "time-projection chamber" detector for tracking and making
measurements on the charged particles produced in RHIC collisions.
RHIC facility is actually two ring-accelerators that accelerate heavy nuclei in
opposite directions to nearly the speed of light and then bring them into
collision, creating an ultra-hot "fireball" from nuclear systems having a
head-on collision. RHIC was designed
to create a quark-gluon
plasma, a new state of matter that has not yet been studied.
Standard cosmology says that a quark-gluon plasma was the state of the
universe in the first few microseconds after the Big Bang, at the time when the
cosmos cooled to a plasma of quarks and gluons, but was not yet cool enough to
make the transition to a "soup" of nucleons and mesons, followed by
electrons and nuclei, then atoms and photons, etc.
The quark-gluon plasma represents new and unexplored territory in the
domain of nuclear and particle physics. Exploring
this quark-matter territory could simply provide a confirmation of our present
ideas about matter under extreme conditions, or it could reveal new and
unanticipated wonders. If the
history of accelerator physics is any guide, one can expect surprises when a new
accelerator facility opens up unexplored territory, and indeed there have been
surprises (and puzzles) coming from RHIC.
The RHIC facility was completed in 1999. However, the initial attempt to produce collisions with RHIC in the summer of 1999 was unsuccessful. It was ultimately discovered that the machine had been damaged by wrong-headed pressure tests before operation began and that expensive repairs were needed. The RHIC collisions and measurements finally began in 2000. There have now been five years of running, and a great deal of data has been collected at the two large RHIC experiments, PHENIX and STAR, and also at the two smaller experiments, BRAHMS and PHOBOS. The data has produced much excitement and much progress has been made, but up to now, the data has been telling a confusing story.
understand the confusion, we have to talk a bit about the conditions in a
quark-gluon plasma. First consider
what happens when a gas of hydrogen atoms is heated until the orbiting electrons
come loose. In the gas, electrons
are bound by electrical forces to protons that form the nuclei of hydrogen
atoms. When the energy gets high
enough, the electrons are detached from the protons.
When this happens, the gas becomes a plasma,
with a "fluid" of charged electrons sloshing back and forth against the more
massive "fluid" formed by the protons.
analogy, at the much higher temperatures available at RHIC we should be able to
do the same thing with nuclei. Each
proton and neutron in a nucleus can be considered as a "bag" containing
three quarks held together by
the strong force, which is moderated by massless particles called gluons.
If we subject the system to enough heat and pressure, the quarks should
be surrounded by gluons, pulled in all directions by color forces, and should
become relatively free particles, no longer constrained to stay in their bags in
groups of three. At RHIC, where gold
nuclei are brought into collision at energies of up to 200 GeV per nucleon,
theoretical lattice-gauge calculations indicate that a plasma made of quarks and
gluons should be produced.
problem with verifying that a RHIC collision produced a quark-gluon plasma is
that such a QGP state would be present early in the collision for a very brief
time, after which the system expands and cools to become a collection of baryons
(3 quarks) and mesons (quark-antiquark pairs) going their separate ways.
With the STAR detector, we must measure this "debris" of baryons and
mesons from a collision and attempt to deduce what happened in the early stages
of the collision.
if we are constrained to view only the aftermath of a RHIC collision, the
prospects for finding that a QGP was present are not hopeless.
There are several characteristic signals of a QGP that can be looked for.
First, it should have a very high initial pressure.
This should accelerate the particles coming from the collision more in
some directions than others, and should produce a characteristic "elliptic
flow" pattern in particles emerging from the collision.
And indeed, such an elliptic flow pattern was one of the first signals
observed in RHIC collisions.
characteristic of a QGP is that it manifests the strong force at its strongest,
without the shielding and cancellation that occurs when quarks form mesons and
baryons. Therefore, the very
energetic particles that are created early in a collision and that must pass
through a QGP on their way out should interact strongly with it and should have
a high probability of losing energy or disappearing completely before they
escape. And indeed, such
disappearance of the most energetic mesons and baryons is another signal that
has been observed to be present in RHIC collisions.
we stopped there, we might say that two independent signals are telling us that
a quark-gluon plasma has been created in RHIC collisions.
However, there is a severe problem. The
size, shape, and time evolution of the fireball emitting pi mesons (i.e., "pions",
particles made of a quark-antiquark pair) can be measured using a technique
called "Hanbury-Brown Twiss or HBT interferometry" or HBT.
It is used on pairs of pions from the collision, looking for an enhanced
probability of such pairs that are close in momentum.
a quark-gluon plasma has many more particles and quantum numbers than an
equivalent fireball made of baryons and mesons, it has more ways of squirreling
away energy and should be slower to release that energy.
Therefore, if a QGP lies at the heart of a RHIC collision, the resulting
fireball should grow larger in size and should expand and emit particles longer
than a fireball than never made a QGP. Therefore,
the pre-RHIC theoretical expectation was that when HBT interferometry was done
on RHIC collisions, one would see a very large source (10-20 femtometers or fm)
that emits pions for a long time (3-10 fm/c).
However, the actual measurements seem to say otherwise. The measures source sizes are about the same size a those from lead-lead collisions measured on other accelerators operating 10 to 100 time lower in energy. The source size at RHIC shows no dramatic growth. Further, it appears that the pions are emitted explosively, in a time so short that it can't be measured (less than 1 fm/c). Instead of bringing the nuclear liquid to a gentle boil and observing the "steam" of a quark-gluon plasma, the whole boiler seems to be exploding in our faces! This mysterious behavior is now called the "RHIC HBT Puzzle". It has proved to be a serious barrier for those who would like to announce that the quark-gluon plasma has been discovered at RHIC.
am an experimental physicist who was one of the founding members of the STAR
Collaboration. I have been one
of the leaders of the STAR HBT interferometry work at RHIC.
But I sometimes also do theoretical studies, and perhaps 1/4 of the
roughly 200 papers I have published over the years are in theory rather than
experiment. And I had an idea about
what might be missing from the theories that predict large sources and long
emission durations at RHIC. I
suspected that the problem was that those theories were not using quantum
mechanics to describe the pions from the fireball, and in particular were not
including the possibility that these particles could be deflected or absorbed on
the way out of the fireball. Fortunately,
one of my theorist colleagues at the
work took about two years. We
formulated a relativistic quantum mechanical description of the problem, wrote a
computer program that could predict HBT source sizes, emission durations, and
pion momentum distributions, and then hooked this program to a "search
code", a program that would systematically vary the variables used in the
program to fit data measured by the STAR detector for collisions of gold nuclei
at the highest RHIC energy. When we
looked at the data fitting results, we found a surprise.
had begun the work with the assumption that the important missing ingredient in
the previous theories was that they ignored the absorption and loss of pions on
the way out of the fireball medium. We
had also included a "potential well" that describes the deflection and
energy change of the particles, but we didn't consider it to be very
important. But when the fitting
began, we found that the good fits could only be obtained if we started the
pions at the bottom of a very deep potential well and made them use most of
their kinetic energy to climb out and escape.
The well needed was so deep that it roughly equaled the mass-energy of
the particles. This could be
interpreted as saying that the pions were losing most of their mass in the
numerical result triggered a flash of insight.
In vacuum, a pion has a mass of 140 MeV, but in the hot dense medium of a
quark gluon plasma the standard model predicts a "chiral symmetry" phase
transition that makes the particles lose most of their mass for two reasons:
Surrounded by external color forces, the size of the pion grows, reducing
the internal motion that accounts for most of its mass.
Further, the quarks lose the "dressing" of virtual particles they had
in vacuum, and they become essentially massless.
Therefore, pions in a region where chiral symmetry has been at least
partially restored should lose most of their mass.
They would have to do work against a deep potential well to regain their
mass when they emerge into the vacuum. Our
fitting results were pointing to chiral symmetry.
so we built the characteristics of chiral symmetry into our program and re-did
the fits. The results were
spectacular. All the data could be
fitted with reasonable values of the fitting variables.
And the calculations showed that the apparent small source size and short
emission duration of the analysis had been illusions produced by the deep well
from which the particles were emitted and by their absorption on the way out of
the fireball. The actual source was
larger and emitted longer.
to most theoretical descriptions of hot dense media, a quark-gluon plasma and
chiral symmetry restoration should happen at about the same temperature and
pressure. The deep potential well
that emerges from our results provides evidence that a chiral phase transition
has occurred in the collision. By
implication, therefore, it supports the picture that RHIC collisions are
producing a quark-gluon plasma. Our
results have converted a problem for the QGP interpretation into another piece
of evidence in support of it.
other words, we have solved the RHIC HBT Puzzle.
The problem was that previous theoretical treatments were leaving out
quantum mechanics, were leaving out the loss of pions in the medium, and were
leaving out the deep potential well from which the pions must emerge.
When those elements are added, all the pieces click into place and the
puzzle is solved. Our paper
describing this work has just been accepted for publication in the journal
Physical Review Letters.
Solving the RHIC HBT Puzzle:
G. Cramer, Gerald A. Miller, Jackson M. S. Wu, and Jin-Hee Yoon,
"Quantum Opacity, the RHIC HBT Puzzle, and the Chiral Phase
Transition", Physical Review Letters (accepted for publication),
electronic preprint nucl-th/0411031.
Cramer's new book: a non-fiction work describing his Transactional
Interpretation of quantum mechanics, The Quantum Handshake - Entanglement,
Nonlocality, and Transactions, (Springer, January-2016)
is available for purchase online as a printed or eBook at: http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319246406 .
SF Novels by John Cramer: my two hard SF novels, Twistor and Einstein's Bridge, are newly released as eBooks by Book View Cafe and are available at : http://bookviewcafe.com/bookstore/?s=Cramer .
Columns Online: Electronic
reprints of about 174 "The Alternate View" columns by John G. Cramer,
previously published in